By Marjorie Keniston McIntosh
A neighborhood reworked lines the restructuring of Havering among 1500 and 1620 via particular research of demographic styles, the economic climate, faith, social and cultural varieties, and native management and legislations. McIntosh's learn, the main complicated and richly drawn portrait of any English neighborhood during this interval, is going past neighborhood heritage in illuminating the transition from medieval to early modem existence. A group remodeled is the sequel to Professor McIntosh's acclaimed paintings Autonomy and neighborhood: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200-1500, released through Cambridge in 1986.
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Additional info for A Community Transformed: The Manor and Liberty of Havering-atte-Bower 1500-1620
The parish clerks noted the cause of some violent deaths between 1560 and 1620; for the 1560s we have the reports submitted by Havering's coroners, giving the outcome of inquests held to determine the cause of all unnatural deaths. 6% were thus violent. 4%. Romford's mortality pattern was shaped by a high rate of epidemic disease, in most if not all cases the plague, which apparently brought a raised level of infant mortality and heavy losses among children and adolescents. There is no reason to think that living conditions were worse in Romford than in other market communities.
Of households 31 86 43 3i 14 14 7 226 have been relatives of the household heads, especially stepchildren, the great majority were evidently servants or apprentices living with and working for that family. 10a. The adult sex ratio in Romford parish was 93 men to 100 women, a preponderance of females characteristic of urban settings. 62 If we use 13 years as an average age for first receiving communion and add 282 projected children under 13 to the stated number of 690 people, we obtain a total projected population of 972.
But both the hall and the parlour had wall hangings, and Edmund and his wife slept upon a featherbed and ate from pewter dishes by the light of brass candlesticks. A more fully equipped household is illustrated by the home of Margaret Stevens, the widow of a Hornchurch butcher. For four years after her husband's death in 1564, Margaret supported her large family by keeping the butcher's shop going. To do so, she presumably had to hire a male employee to do the slaughtering and may have needed to pay someone to wait on customers, as she herself had an extensive brood of children to oversee - eight children under the age of 21 years, at least five of whom were still living at home, with only a single female servant to assist her.