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By Ronald K. Hambleton, Peter F. Merenda, Charles D. Spielberger

Adapting academic and mental assessments for Cross-Cultural evaluate significantly examines and advances new tools and practices for adapting assessments for cross-cultural evaluate and learn. The foreign try fee (ITC) guidance for try edition and conceptual and methodological matters in try variation are defined intimately, and questions of ethics and challenge for validity of try ratings in cross-cultural contexts are rigorously tested. Advances in try out translation and variation technique, together with statistical identity of fallacious try out goods, setting up equivalence of alternative language models of a try out, and methodologies for evaluating assessments in a number of languages, are reviewed and evaluated. The publication additionally makes a speciality of adapting skill, success, and character checks for cross-cultural overview in academic, business, and medical settings. This booklet furthers the ITC's project of stimulating learn on well timed subject matters linked to review. It offers a good source for classes in psychometric equipment, try out building, and academic and/or mental overview, trying out, and size. Written via the world over recognized students in psychometric equipment and cross-cultural psychology, the gathering of chapters must also offer crucial info for educators and psychologists serious about cross-cultural review, in addition to scholars desiring to such careers.

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Prieto, A. J. (1992). A method for translation of instruments to other languages. Adult Education Quarterly, 43, 1-14. 25 26 HAMBLETON terpreted and understood in completely different ways by two cul­ tures. For example, the concept of "intelligence" is known to exist in almost all cultures. However, in many Western cultures this con­ cept is associated with producing answers quickly, whereas for many Eastern cultures, intelligence is often associated with thoughtfulness, reflection, and saying the right thing (Lonner, 1990).

European Psychologist, 1, 89-99. van de Vijver, F. J. , & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. van de Vijver, F. J. , & Leung, K. (2000). Methodological issues in psycho­ logical research on culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 33-51. van de Vijver, F. J. , & Poortinga, Y. H. (1991). Testing across cultures. In R. K. Hambleton & J. ), Advances in educational and psychological testing (pp. 277-308). Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Rationale/Explanation. Existing tests are often developed and standardized for use in one culture and adapted for use in another culture. Time and expense can be saved if existing tests are adapted (Brislin, 1986). However, many constructs may not be meaningful 1. ISSUES, DESIGNS, AND TECHNICAL GUIDELINES 29 without major modifications in other cultures. Several examples have already been suggested in this chapter—intelligence, quality of life, and mathematics achievement. In some instances, it may even be possible to determine that a test is not worth translating, and thereby save considerable time, effort, and money.

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