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By Henry C Lee; R E Gaensslen

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If there are significant differences in some of the class characteristics measurements, then the questioned sample can be absolutely excluded as coming from the particular source. In other words, the exclusionary value of comparison in the forensic field is considered absolute. Depending on the nature and type of the physical evidence, no further analysis can be made beyond the comparison step with many types of physical evidence due to inherent limitations. Two approaches have been used for latent print identification and individualization: systems engineering and human problem-solving techniques.

On the thenar eminence, a trapezoidal region occurs where the rugae and sulci are set transversely to the circles. On the hypothenar eminence, toward the radial margin of the metacarpal, a larger loop is often observed where the rugae and sulci going out from the margin are again reflected onto it. Sometimes an elliptical whorl is seen on this eminence. Fingerprint Classification A major step forward in the use of fingerprints was a method of classification that enabled fingerprint forms bearing differing patterns to be placed in a certain order, thus enabling the search area to be minimized.

0923Ch01Frame Page 39 Monday, May 14, 2001 1:34 PM I find that portions of palm imprints and flexure surfaces (the inside lengths of the fingers) are frequently found at crime scenes, possibly in three out of every five crimes, and yet I am not aware of any computer developments to search these valuable clues. Palms and flexures are extremely difficult to search manually. Nevertheless, during the last 100 years, particularly since the start of its operational use in 1901, the fingerprint system of identification has maintained its infallible status, permitting the identification of countless offenders but protecting millions of innocent citizens.

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