By Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu
Low Reynolds quantity aerodynamics is necessary to a couple of ordinary and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and bugs were of curiosity to biologists for years, and energetic research within the aerospace engineering neighborhood, encouraged through curiosity in micro air cars (MAVs), has been expanding speedily. the first concentration of this publication is the aerodynamics linked to mounted and flapping wings. The booklet think of either organic flyers and MAVs, together with a precis of the scaling laws-which relate the aerodynamics and flight features to a flyer's sizing at the foundation of easy geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interaction among flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters equivalent to the Reynolds quantity, Strouhal quantity, and diminished frequency is highlighted. some of the unsteady raise enhancement mechanisms also are addressed, together with modern vortex, swift pitch-up and rotational circulate, wake trap, and clap-and-fling.
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Extra resources for Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers
A common way of describing this relationship is by means of a power curve. 32) where k5 and k6 are constants. 17). 17 represents the power required for steady flight. 18. The U-shaped power curve for a fixed-wing aircraft. Ump is the velocity for minimum power (Pmp ) and UMr is the velocity for maximum range. particular speed Ump , where the power required has a minimum value. 18 is a straight dashed line. This line starts at the origin and tangents the U-curve at a certain point. The velocity at this point is the velocity for maximum range, UMr .
To overcome these challenges, natural flyers flap their wings to enhance lift and improve maneuverability. The aerodynamics of fixed and flapping wings are discussed next. P1: SBT 9780521882781c02 CUFX190/Shyy 978 0 521 88278 1 September 10, 2007 14:44 CHAPTER TWO Fixed, Rigid-Wing Aerodynamics As already mentioned, there are several prominent features of MAV flight: (i) low Reynolds numbers (104 –105 ), resulting in degraded aerodynamic performance, (ii) small physical dimensions, resulting in much reduced payload capabilities, as well as some favorable scaling characteristics including structural strength, reduced stall speed, and impact tolerance, (iii) low flight speed, resulting in an order one effect of the flight environment such as wind gust, and intrinsically unsteady flight characteristics.
Selected seagull wing configurations during flapping, which show various stages of strokes. Note that the wings are often flexed with their primaries rotated. For larger birds, which cannot rotate their wings between forward and backward strokes, the wings are extended to provide more lift during downstroke, whereas during the upstroke the wings are flexed backward to reduce drag. In general the flex is more pronounced in the slow forward flight than in fast forward flight. 11. As shown in the figure, to avoid large drag forces and negative lift forces, these birds flex their wings during the upstroke by rotating the primaries (tip feathers) to let air through.